Bortniansky participates in the activities of the Academy of Music in Bologna.

Bortniansky participates in the activities of the Academy of Music in Bologna.

But the poet was already recovering, tired of a long and high fever heart could not stand. He died on July 6, 1937.


Ukrainian composer and conductor Dmytro Bortnyansky. Abstract

The abstract presents biographical information about Stepan Bortnyansky. He is a Ukrainian composer and conductor

He was born in 1751 in Hlukhiv. He received his primary musical education at the Glukhiv Singing School, which trained singers for the court choir in St. Petersburg. At a young age he was distinguished from his peers for his strong voice and musicality and was taken to St. Petersburg to the choir, where he studied with the leader of the choir, Italian composer, arranger Baldassare Galluppi.

Later, Galluppi, on the instructions of Queen Elizabeth Petrovna, took his pupil to Italy, where he studied for ten years in Venice, Bologna, Rome and Naples. In Italy, Bortniansky’s operas were successfully staged in Italian librettos "Creon" (1776), "Alkyd" (1778), "Quintus Fabius" (1779). Bortniansky participates in the activities of the Academy of Music in Bologna. His operas were staged at the Venetian Theater "San benedetto"… At the age of 28, Bortnyansky returned to St. Petersburg, where he became a court choirmaster, and from 1796 – the head of the court choir, composed almost exclusively of pupils of the Glukhov singing school.

In 1782 it was published in St. Petersburg "Cherubim" 1784 – three-part choir "May my prayer be corrected"… Bortnyansky was the first composer in Russia whose musical works began to be published. Under Bortnyansky, the St. Petersburg court chapel reached a high level. During the leadership of the choir Bortnyansky wrote many instrumental works, operas on French librettos "Falcon" (1786), "The rival son" (1787), a pastoral comedy "Senior’s holiday" (1786) and others. In 1793, D. Bortnyansky’s romances were published in St. Petersburg.

In 1802, the St. Petersburg Philharmonic Society was founded, and Bortnyansky’s choirs performed successfully at its concerts. In 1816 the composer was appointed chief censor of publications of spiritual works. At the end of his life Bortnyansky continued to write romances, songs, cantatas. He wrote the anthem "The singer is in the condition of Russian soldiers" in the words of the poet M. Heraskov, dedicated to the events of the war of 1812.

In the last years of his life, Bortnyansky worked to prepare for the publication of a complete collection of his works, in which he invested almost all his money, but never saw it. The composer managed to publish only the best of his choral concerts, written in his youth, as "Spiritual concerts for four voices, created and again corrected by D. Bortnyansky"… Bortnyansky died in 1825 in St. Petersburg, and a complete collection of his works in 10 volumes was published only in 1882, edited by P. Tchaikovsky.

Musical traditions in Ukraine date back to ancient times, as evidenced by frescoes depicting musicians on the walls of Sophia of Kyiv, chronicle mentions of singers Boyan and Mytus. Music education was later cultivated in fraternal schools, Kyiv-Mohyla Collegium, in special schools under the Zaporozhian Army, where orchestrators were trained. Music education was one of the main disciplines in the education system in Kharkiv and Pereyaslav colleges, in all theological schools and primary schools.

The high level of musical education among Ukrainians was a big surprise for the Arab traveler Paul of Aleppo, who visited Ukraine in 1654 and 1656 and noted this in his memoirs: "The singing of the Cossacks pleases the soul and heals from sorrow, because their melody is pleasant, comes from the heart and is performed as if from one mouth; they are passionate about musical singing, gentle and sweet melodies"…

The Glukhiv Singing School, established on the initiative of Hetman Danylo Apostol in 1730, played a significant role in the development of music education not only in Ukraine but also in Russia. Students were selected for her from all over Ukraine. The training lasted two years. In addition to singing, students mastered the violin, bandura, cymbals and other instruments. Pupils of the Glukhiv Singing School were among the best choirs and orchestras in Ukraine and Russia, and especially gifted – in the court chapel in St. Petersburg. There is an assumption that Hryhoriy Skovoroda studied at the Hlukhiv school.

Among the professional composers, the most famous were the pupils of the school M. Berezovsky, D. Bortnyansky and A. Wedel, the most prominent representatives of Ukrainian and Russian musical art of the second half of the XVIII-early XIX century. The first two went from the Glukhiv school to the St. Petersburg court choir, later they, as the best students, were sent to study in Italy. After long difficult trials, Berezovsky was awarded the title of academician-composer of the then famous Bologna Academy of Music.

Artem Wedel worked in Moscow as the leader of the church choir. But Dmytro Bortnyansky had the longest and loudest success as a composer, choir conductor and teacher. Nature endowed him with talent, diligence and good manners, which helped him grow in the intriguing court of Russian emperors.

Bortniansky’s instrumental music was a great success in Italy, where his operas were staged in the theaters of Bologna, Venice, Rome and Naples. "Alkyd" "Creon" "Quintus Fabius"… In them, the composer, following in the footsteps of his outstanding teachers – composers Galluppi, Sarti and others, relied on the traditions of Ukrainian sacred music, adopted in the Glukhov school and among the pupils of Glukhov in the St. Petersburg court choir.

However, the instrumental music of the composer, despite the official recognition at the royal court, was not popular among later Russian composers. His operas and chamber and instrumental works, which were not inferior, as is now evident, to his choral masterpieces, were performed at that time only in a narrow circle of court music lovers.

Russian musicians and composers of the first half of the XIX century accused Bortnyansky, as well as later Tchaikovsky, his ardent supporter, "Italian" "softness and sweetness"… And Mikhail Glinka ironically called Bortnyansky "Sahar medovich patokin"… However, Bortnyansky’s church-vocal, choral music, in which he consistently and always made his connection with Ukrainian sacred music and choral liturgical singing of Ukrainian Orthodox churches, was very popular during his lifetime. They were also sung outside the church, in educational institutions, in amateur choirs, in serf chapels, and in everyday life. They were translated for harpsichord and piano, harp and other instruments.

The reason for this popularity lay in the classic simplicity and accessibility of the melody. But the most important thing is that Bortniansky filled them with intonations of folk songs, church chants, melodies of polyphonic Ukrainian church singing and kobzar art. All this, fused with Western European influences, including Italian, created a unique style of Bortniansky’s works, interest in which does not fade in our time.

Bortnyansky’s musical heritage is huge. He wrote 35 four-part choral concerts for various ensembles, which in his time were called psalms, 10 two-choir concerts, 14 four-part concerts "We praise God for you" 29 separate liturgical songs, three-part liturgy, spiritual works for female choir with a refrain of mixed choir, arrangements of ancient church Kyiv and Bulgarian chants and many others. Bortniansky’s church-vocal style is the pinnacle of contemporary art. No wonder Bortnyansky’s works were admired by Berlioz and Beethoven.

Despite the practical purpose of the concerts, which were created mostly on the occasion of some palace celebrations or anniversaries, they have not only outstanding artistic value, but also a great variety of internal content. Bortnyansky’s early concerts are characterized by ceremonial splendor, solemnity, and the colorful sound of celebrations at the court of Catherine II. In their spirit they resemble the odic poetry of those times, in particular the poetry of G. Derzhavin.

In concerts and choral works of the later period, the composer is more devoted to his memories, saturating them with sublime and refined lyrics, in which from time to time there are direct reminiscences of Ukrainian folk and spiritual melody.

With his work, Bortniansky established the traditions of Ukrainian choral singing in the repertoire of the St. Petersburg choir court chapel, which consisted of the vast majority of the bearers of Ukrainian musical traditions adopted in the Glukhiv school. At the same time, Bortnyansky laid the foundations of the traditions of polyphonic choir in Russia. He created a wonderful choir in the chapel, which had impeccable technical and timbre qualities, high vocal culture.

Constant practical work with such a group helped Bortnyansky to deeply understand the specifics of the church choir, as evidenced by his best concerts on the 15th, 16th, 19th, 24th and 30th. Too late, the thirtieth concerto, written in the 1790s. He is distinguished by a special spontaneity, sincere sincerity. In it, the intonation of Bortnyansky’s native Ukrainian song sounds like a spiritual refrain in a warm lyrical stream.

Almost half a century of Bortnyansky’s life was connected with music education, with the most important processes of formation of musical culture in Russia. At the same time, Bortnyansky has its roots in Ukrainian culture, its ancient musical and choral tradition, which later developed in the works of prominent Ukrainian composers M. Lysenko, K. Stetsenko, M. Leontovych, M. Dremlyuga, L. Revutsky, K. Dominchen, B. Lyatoshynsky. etc.

The newcomers (Little Russians) took here (in Great Russia) the most prominent and influential places, from hierarchs to the departments of the consistories arranged by them, from the pupils of the royal family to the abbots of monasteries, to rectors, prefects and teachers of schools founded by them, to cabinet and typographic scholars. , deacons, secretaries. Everything almost fell under their indisputable influence: theological teaching, correction of the sacred and liturgical text, printing, church administration, temple, public and home singing, notes … (P. Bessonov. 1871).

In the XVIII century, during the reign of Tsarina Catherine, our Ukrainians founded the national Russian singing, where they put their soul, loved on Ukrainian soil.