This latest technology forces us to rethink even the production process itself.
“Thus, in the history of culture, according to the philosophy of the process, a prominent representative of which was the American philosopher Charles S. Pierce (1839-1914), the stage of purposeful transformation and use of information is the third, highest stage of human culture and technology in particular.
This historical order of technology development – from purposeful transformation and use of material objects (first stage) and purposeful transformation and use of energy (second stage) to purposeful transformation and use of information (third stage) – is at the same time a logical order , as energy carriers and machines the existence of ordinary means of labor, as well as they are a necessary prerequisite for the development and use of information media – computers, satellites, etc. “[Rizun VV, 9].
The presence of labor technology underlies the development of a particular production and the entire industry. The success of the development of the information industry is invariably associated with the creation of perfect means of labor organization, with the automation of information production processes. Automation occurs only in high-tech areas of production processes, because the schematic, automatic execution of certain production operations, the commissioning of any device can only be where production operations are easily formalized or have been successfully formalized, and therefore deeply understood, analyzed.
Automation of production processes is a manifestation of a high level of technologicalization of production and an integral part of any technology.
Information technology is based on the concept of information as “captured” in inanimate material reflection of reality, which is received, stored, processed, issued, distributed and used. Already this list of operations, according to VP Kashirin, indicates that information is the subject and product of the information industry and is similar to matter and energy.
The credit for this primarily belongs to cybernetics [Kashirin VP, 58].
The main attributes of any technology are the technological subject (object), technological means of labor and technological process [Humanitarian Technologies, 13]. The technological process consists of many operations, which together can constitute a certain technique. Thus, the technological process can be defined as a system of techniques used to achieve a certain goal.
In information production, the technological subject is information on a specific medium, or a means of mass communication. Technological means of labor are the means of obtaining, storing, processing, etc. information on tangible media. These include, in particular, computers and printing machines. The technological process includes the processes of information collection, processing, analysis, storage, manufacture, replication, distribution.
Accordingly, techniques are distinguished: information collection technique, analysis technique, etc. Unfortunately, the system of techniques for information technology is not sufficiently extensive and developed, which is due to the inability to algorithmize and automate some communication processes today. Thus, the choice of a topical topic, its analysis is difficult to unify and algorithmize.
Ways of organizing the production process and the production process itself depend on the subject of labor, on knowledge about it. In this case, it is customary to talk about materials science as the basis of the technological process, because the knowledge of the subject of labor depends on the organization of labor. Therefore, knowledge of material media and the information itself (newspaper, magazine, book, television, text, publication, etc.) is the basis of information technology.
As for technological means, the information industry is still not rich, as evidenced by the inability of our engineering technologies to produce machines that could materialize the techniques of analysis, content processing, etc. Existing technical means that have become traditional – tape recorders, typewriters, radios, etc. – perform mostly a reproductive function and can materialize only those operations that involve the reproduction of voice and image.
These tools play a productive role, but they are especially important in combination with the latest technical tools, which include, in particular, the computerwell, other electronic equipment. This technique is fundamentally different from reproductive techniques.
It, along with the function of reproduction, is able to materialize the operations of obtaining, storing and processing information. The human brain, for all its perfection, is unable to store and process the fleeting flow of information. Electronic technology made it possible to materialize information processes and gave impetus to the development of computer information technology.
Due to its ability to control information processes, computer technology has become an important technological tool in the information sphere. The modern specialist actually has at hand:
information source in the form of data banks, where information is low-discrete (sparse) in space and time, accessible through information networks in any corner of the globe; analytical device that helps the specialist to make decisions; a diagnostic device capable of monitoring the situation of interaction of the specialist with the technological object and correcting the actions of the specialist; a cybernetic device that is able to control the actions of a specialist through a system of interface devices (speaker, printer, monitor, telephone, etc.).
Computer technology to some extent simulates the activities of a specialist through the materialization of basic techniques that the specialist had to perform manually. The time of cyber experts will come, but it will be possible only on the basis of artificial intelligence.
So far, human technology is only a powerful technological tool, especially in the information field. There is a question of expediency of inclusion in activity of the expert of an information profile of computer equipment. It should be used only in the stages of routine human work or in situations involving high energy costs or significant capacity.
Computer technology is part of human activity with its hardware and software in the form of automated workstations (AWP), information retrieval systems (IPS), automated information systems (AIS), expert systems (ES), data banks (DB), information networks , etc.
This technique is not just included in the production activities of people, it forms the latest technologies, displacing the traditional, which is associated with the socio-psychological and professional orientation and adaptation of manufacturers. Naturally, the change of the smallest technological chain disrupts the entire technological process, makes a reassessment of all involved in this area of production technology.
Therefore, the social adaptation of computer technology is a socially complex process that affects the interests of institutions and manufacturers. This latest technology forces us to rethink even the production process itself. Yes, it happened with editorial and publishing technologies, which were humanized thanks to computer technology, as the process of making an original layout on a personal computer became available to almost everyone.
Computer technology has affected the interests of every employee in the information sphere, forced him to get rid of production stereotypes, to take care of their skills, to master new equipment, to change the culture of production, production relations. Thus, computer technology has in fact reorganized the editorial and publishing process in the direction of expanding the area of editorial functions and reducing the functions of the printing house.
Layout and layout processes were transferred to the editorial office, while printing houses were left with the processes of printing and reproduction. Due to the software specifically focused on publishing, the processes of typing, proofreading and editing cease to exist separately. Technologically, this may be the only process whose integrity depends on the software product.
High-quality, high-tech production of media is due to the public need to produce perfect, aesthetically designed media necessary for human development and society as a whole, preservation and transmission of information from generation to generation, the formation of society’s information system, science, technology, culture and more.
Any text, from a few printed lines to a multi-volume edition, is an invaluable source of information, a container of the people’s spirit, an information channel between the past and the future. Each text is a manifestation of the national information system in which this generation lives. In understanding this significance of the text, the work of a printer, compiler, and proofreader, who create truly graphic masterpieces of national culture, seems more important and weighty.
For the information system of society, the technology of manufacturing media is not indifferent (indifferent). After all, the speed of information dissemination depends on the speed, in particular, of printing processes.
From a natural point of view, the transfer of information must be a latent, uninterrupted, accelerated process, and any failures that affect these characteristics of the information transfer process are detrimental to nature itself. Information technologies in society as sociologized methods and processes of information transfer, in contrast to natural ones, are in some ethan frome 3-7 summary ways cumbersome, slow processes due to low level of automation, disproportion between ability to enter and output information, inability to quickly process and publish large information arrays. or other media.
Openness and conscious regulation of information processes in society, on the one hand, is a positive fact, because it allows the selection of information, to determine the channels of its dissemination and so on. Information flows in a given society are always socially regulated, and this is the mechanism of development and existence of social information systems, where various social institutions – from the individual to a particular team – influence the formation of information flows.
On the other hand, it is a negative, because outside interference in the secrecy of information processes is not always correct, it is too subjective.