Among them, the largest is the group of non-metallic minerals

Among them, the largest is the group of non-metallic minerals

On the southern slope, at an altitude of up to 500 meters, developed oak and fir forests, and at an altitude of 500-900 meters, they are replaced by a belt of Crimean pine and oak. Above is a belt of beech forests. The highlands of the Crimean mountains are forestless: they are high mountain meadows.

Subtropical vegetation is developed on the personal narrative speech topics southern shore of the Creek, here, in the semi-arid subtropics, forests of downy oak, Crimean and Pitsunda pine, wild pistachio, juniper tree, prickly shrub shrubs have developed. The natural vegetation of the humid subtropics is represented by deciduous forests (oak, hornbeam, beech, chestnut, alder) relics (delkva, lapina, yew).

On the southern coast of the peninsula, many plants acclimatize. These are cypresses, palms, citrus, tea, grave, figs, magnolia, eucalyptus, laurel, cedar.

From all the above, it can be noted. That the flora of the Crimean mountains is quite peculiar. Of these, 2,200 species are in the Mountain Crimea, including 1,500 species – on the southern coast of Crimea. This physical and geographical area is characterized by plant species that grow in the Balkans, the Caucasus, and Asia Minor, which indicates the past unity of the Eastern Mediterranean flora.


According to the geographical location conducted by Ol. Kistyakivsky, Mountain Crimea district belongs to the Mediterranean subregion of the Galarctic region.

Mountain Crimea district includes the extreme southern and south-eastern part of the peninsula – Mountain Crimea and the Southern coast of Crimea. Climatic conditions, which differ from the climate of the steppe regions adjacent to the north, have a decisive influence on the species composition of the animal world.

Crimean and rock lizards, Crimean gecko, leopard slug, wild boar, mountain goat, roe deer, squirrel, bats, stone marten, sea gulls, gray pigeon, southern nightingale, black vulture are common here.

In the mountain forests of the Crimea is common handsome – red deer. In the Crimean mountains, it is represented by the Crimean species, up to 50% of the population of which is reserved. Their fishing is strictly limited: 1.5-2 thousand heads per year. In addition to the above-mentioned animals, there are many voles, mice, shrews, as well as forest birds – capercaillies, grouse, and black grouse.


Fuel minerals and their extraction. Abstract

Many minerals cannot be synthesized by humans. Therefore, it is forced to extract them from deposits – natural accumulations of minerals that can be used by humans for various purposes. But to get them, she needs to make a lot of effort

Many centuries ago, people did not have any special tools for extracting combustible minerals. Therefore, they are usually extracted at the surface (oil) or in the open, or collected on the shores of the sea from the water-washed layers (coal). Later, solid fuel began to be extracted from shallow mines, and because they were poorly equipped, there was a high probability of collapse or flooding by groundwater.

But already in the 16th – 16th centuries mines became more mechanized, steam engines, special water and gas drainage machines, ventilation were installed, and human safety was improved.

As for oil, at first they dug wells and extracted oil like water from a well, but it was extremely difficult to dig them. Being more than 5 minutes, it is impossible to breathe through poisonous gases. When he went down to dig, the worker had to sing a song, but when he heard that he stopped, he was immediately pulled out and lowered by another. There was another way to extract oil, but more expensive and safer, which required more space. On a large flat place they dug steps, forming a stepped funnel, in the center of which was a small lake with oil. Later, they began to drill wells by percussion, and then by rotary and turbine methods.

But now there are more modern methods of extraction and drilling. Now special installations and towers are being built at the sites, and water is being filled in for greater production. Oil rigs are created on the sea shelves. They float at sea or are attached to piles driven into the bottom. It is much more dangerous to work on them than on a ground rig, as the platform can be damaged during a storm.

In addition, the construction of such a platform is about 10 times more expensive than ground. It is taken to the sea in sections and then collected. Equipment and personnel are transported to it by helicopter. Progress has also been made in drilling techniques. Now you can drill to a greater depth, bypass the aquifer, with a deviation from the vertical, oblique and even arc. The same extraction system exists for gas.

There have also been changes in the extraction of solid combustible minerals. High-performance equipment is now used in mines and quarries. Mining is more time consuming and expensive, but it is used more often because the main reserves are at depth. To reach the coal or other layers, vertical, inclined mines are laid, where the deposit lies shallow, and sometimes horizontal, where the layers come to the surface, especially on the slopes. The diameter of the vertical is usually a few meters, and the depth is more than a kilometer. From them to the coal seams punch horizontal mine workings – crossbars. In the middle of the layers are drifts (which have no access to the surface).

At inclined extraction along layers the inclined lifts are put: slopes (for descent of various freight) bramsbergs (for lifting of minerals). In addition, a promising method of extraction is the hydraulic method: a powerful stream of water from a special device – a hydromonitor, crushes coal or shale, which go through the pipeline to the concentrator. From thin layers of coal or shale is extracted with an auger, which resembles the screw of a meat grinder with a sharp tip.

The open method of extraction of combustible minerals is the safest and cheapest. First, large excavators (draglines) with buckets with a capacity of 100 m3 remove rocks that cover coal or shale layers. Then other powerful excavators with a height of 13-storey building load minerals into wagons at a speed of 5000 m3 / h. In this way, the world produces almost half of all coal and shale.

As for peat, it has a peculiar method of extraction. Previously, peat was extracted with special shovels, the metal part of which was bent at right angles. The peat "bricks" cut by them were stacked in a pyramid for drying. Now, before development, peat deposits are dried by means of special channels, and also cleared of trees and bushes. Then extract by a milling way, that is the dried and leveled layer of peat is crushed. special machines, dried and collected in bales.

So, extracting fuel minerals is a very difficult job, but it is nothing compared to the benefits they bring.



Ternopil region: minerals. Abstract

The location of the Ternopil region within the Eastern European platform led to the formation of minerals of sedimentary origin. Among them, the largest is the group of non-metallic minerals

More than 300 mineral deposits of this group have been explored and surveyed in the Ternopil region. Including:

limestone, chalk, marl, gypsum, sand, sandstone, clay, gravel and pebble materials, dolomites, etc.

They are located throughout the region and are raw materials for the production of various building materials.

Loams and clays (more than 100 deposits), which are raw materials for the production of bricks and tiles, are widespread in the region.

The vast majority of them are small and medium; the big ones include:

Ternopil, Oryshkiv, Chortkiv, Terebovlya.

The depth of the clay does not exceed 7 m, and its extraction is carried out in an open way. In the northern and central parts of the region there are deposits of pottery and refractory clays, which are used for the production of tiles and pottery. In Koziv and Terebovlya districts there are deposits of loams suitable for the production of expanded clay.

Sandstones are common in Terebovlya, Chortkiv and Buchach districts on the banks of the Seret and Gnizna rivers. The largest deposits:

Budanivske, Zastinochne, Zastinkivske.

Sandstones were formed as a result of cementation of sands in sea and lake basins. They have a tiled structure, are used for the manufacture of cobblestones, monuments, as a cladding material.

Limestones in the region occur in the following areas:

Borshchiv, Zbarazh, Pidvolochysk, Pidhayets, Berezhany, Buchach, and Zboriv.

Formed from fragmentary limestone material due to the influence of living organisms. They are used for the manufacture of crushed stone, facing tiles, wall blocks, burning lime, as well as in the production of sugar ..

There are limestones in the area that can be sawn into blocks. This is the so-called tesa stone. Its deposits are confined to the Tovtry ridge, the largest of which are Dobryvidske in the Zbarazh district and Lysychanske in the Pidvolochysk district. Used in construction.

Known deposits of limestone tuff (travertine), which can be used as a cladding material. These are light, porous rocks, the cavities of which are filled with calcite. They are widespread in Buchach (Rukomysh, Sokilets), Monastyrsky (Porokhova), Zalishchytsky (Nahiryany, Dorogychivka) districts, mainly in river valleys.

Chalk deposits are in Kremenets and Shum districts, the largest deposits – us. Undergrowth. Deposits lie close to the surface (10-40 m), have a considerable thickness, and this allows for open pit mining. Chalk is used in the feed industry, for liming soils, making school pencils.

Gypsum deposits are located in Transnistria, the largest of them – between Seret and Zbruch (Zalishchyk and Borshchiv districts). The occurrence of gypsum is associated with dry and hot climates in pools that are saturated with calcium sulfate. The thickness of the layers reaches 20-25 m, reserves are estimated at tens of millions of tons. Gypsum is used for plastering soils, in medicine, paper, chemical, cement industries, etc.